Links for future research
Bullock, Henry Allen. A History of Negro Education in the South: From 1619 to the Present, 1967.
Bullock begins his historical overview of the education of African Americans by reminding the reader that in the beginning White Americans did not see any reason to educate Blacks. This kept the Master-Slave relationship strongly divided; African’s were to be used as tools for the American economy. Bullock shares that this relationship, and view of African American’s was carried on through the years up until today (1967). Through his use of court cases and protest he shows the progress that African American have made to receive an education within the past 350 years. Although it may seem that a book discussing African American’s education in the South from 1619 to 1967 may not seem relevant to the subject at hand, a slaves education in 1780 and young Black man education now may have more in common than we think. A History of Negro Education in the South: From 1619 to the Present gives readers an important look at why education continues to be unequal in the United States of American.
Culver, Dwight W. “Racial Desegregation in Education in Indiana.” The Journal of Negro Education 23, no. 3 (July 1, 1954)
Segregation was abolished in the Indiana school system in 1949. Previously local Indiana school boards had been able to decide whether their primary and secondary school were to be segregated. There had been trends moving both away and than back again towards segregation for African Americans and white children. The 1920’s saw a swift turn from desegregation with pressure from the Klu Klux Klan. The Klu Klux Klan was a prominent source of social and political influence in many towns. After World War II a shift began to change this law and finally in the school year of 1949 school officials were forced to discontinue enrollment based upon race, creed, or color of the students. This also applied to the hiring and tenure of teachers. Although Indiana passed desegregation laws five years before Brown v. Board of Education, twenty years later schools were still struggling with the issue of race in the classroom.
Dreier, Peter. “Community Empowerment Strategies: The Limits and Potential of Community Organizing in Urban Neighborhoods.” Cityscape2, no. 2 (May 1, 1996)
Dreir discusses factors that lead to successful community organizing. He talks about the positive effects that community-organizing centers can have on a community. Dreir emphasis the importance of leadership development, planning and building community webs. The article argues that the largest problem that most grass roots operations have is the lack of leadership experience, but this can be combated through leadership seminars and taking advantage of other organizations in the beginning. Although this article is in the context of urban neighborhoods, many of the strategies that Dreier discusses could also be used in Richmond. This article could be helpful for those attempting to start a community center with the goal of a joint dialogue.
Drone, Janell. “Desegregation and Effective School Leadership: Tracking Success, 1954-1980.” The Journal of African American History 90, no. 4 (October 1, 2005)
Drone argues that in the past fifty years since Brown v. Board of Education many American Pubic School systems have gone full circle. She describes that effective leadership, whether it be by Black parents, state officials or court orders, was critical in the successfulness of a public school system being desegregated. She shows how even though segregation in public schools is no longer dejure; in many ways it is now defacto. With the end of court ordered busing to support school desegregation, it became difficult to move students from different neighborhoods into the schools. In 2001 the majority of Latino and African American students were enrolled in public schools that were up to 90% students of color. In 1971 Richmond high school was in the middle of this time period giving the students an interesting perspective.
Eick, Gretchen Cassel. 2001. Dissent in Wichita: the Civil Rights Movement in the Midwest, 1954-72. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Eick reminds scholars that the Civil Right’s Movements was not only happening in the South, that other parts of the country were also involved in a common struggle for freedom. She wants to expand this view to the activism happening in the Midwest too. There were many similarities too the movements happening in the South including the use of media and the internal Black community, but less use of the clergy and Black Church was used in the Midwest. Although her focus is on Wichita the concepts could be seen in other midwestern towns too, such as Richmond. She also argues that in order for social change to occur communities must stop separating oppressions and grievances and brings them together to be a untied force.
Julie Landsman, and Chance W Lewis (Chance Wayne). White Teachers, Diverse Classrooms : a Guide to Building Inclusive Schools, Promoting High Expectations, and Eliminating Racism. 1st ed.. Sterling, Va: Stylus Pub, 2006.
The editors of the guide White Teachers, Diverse Classrooms : a Guide to Building Inclusive Schools, Promoting High Expectations, and Eliminating Racism, discuss the role of white teachers in the achievement of students of color. They write about the privilege that white people in the United States enjoy and the cultural pedagogy that is a large part of our educational system. They argue that too much of our focus has been on obtaining “qualified” teachers who demonstrate content and competence. They wish to see a larger focus on the disposition and clinical skills that a teacher has. Not all students learn the same way and until a person teaching realizes that large portions of their students will be left behind. This guide reminds the readers that work towards a more equal education for all is still not over.
Schwalm, Leslie A. Emancipation’s Diaspora : Race and Reconstruction in the Upper Midwest. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.
Schwalm focuses her study of interest on African American’s experience from emancipating themselves to attempting to live in a society enriched with white supremacy. While many studies have focused on the South Ms. Schwalm looks at how both Black and White Midwesterners, women and men, shaped the attitudes and consequences of national emancipation. Unlike many other academics that researched the Black Diaspora throughout the United States, she involves gender in her research, which is important. She discuses both African American enfranchisement and disenfranchisement, while staying in the context of civil rights. Another interesting aspect of her book is her commentary on how slavery, emancipation and post reconstruction time periods would be remembered and commemorated.
Orum, Anthony M. Black Students in Protest: a Study of the Origins of the Black Student Movement, 1972.
Orum argues that there are three independent sets of conditions that must be considered when studying Black student protestor: personal background and values, experience and attitude towards college life and lastly variation in college setting. These variables are where he finds his answers to by African American students were led to activism in the 1960’s. He also points out that until the mid 60’s these University students were mostly all Black and geographically located in the South. By the middle of the mid sixties Orum states is when the movement moved to the rest of the country. If this study is used it could be said that places such as Richmond did not become involved in the activism until later which is why a high school protest would have happened later in the movement. This study is important because it was conducted and written during the times, it is a first hand observation of political activism happening in the 1960’s. It was also published one year after the Richmond High School protest; it may give us some insight into the minds and feelings of participants.
Stoecker, Randy. “Community Organizing and Social Change.” Contexts 8, no. 1 (January 1, 2009)
Stoecker discusses the idea that even though the concept of community organizing is the people should rule, it is important that the group not only gains the power but also learns how to use it. Community organizers should not be the leaders of the group but the propellers of the group. The group as a whole must come together and make these decisions together in order to be an effective group force. It is also crucial for education about the realities of oppression in order for a community group to make conflict free social change. Randy’s argument also brings up the idea of privilege and that in order for a community leader to be good propeller of change they must acknowledge their identity and where they personally are coming from. These are all important concepts when thinking about Earlham’s role in the High School protests in 1971.
ushistory.org. “The Sit-In Movement”. U.S. History Online Textbook. U.S. last modified 2014. http://www.ushistory.org/us/54d.asp
The modern Civil Rights Movement had gained a serious following through out the world by the 1960’s with the leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. In February of 1960 a new tactic was added to the protestors peaceful strategy-the sit in. In Greensboro, North Carolina four African American students walked into a Woolworths, sat down at a lunch counter and quietly waited to be served. No one participates in sit-in without serious intentions. Although initially sit-ins were used for desegregating lunch counters, students began using them for other forms of protest. Media use was an important proponent of the spreading of sit-ins and Eleven years later in 1971 Richmond High School students used similar tactics inside their own school to cause actions.
By Sydney Hough Solomon