Civil Rights & Earlham Archives

Links for Future Research

Thomas Bettye and Franklin V.P., "Sisters in the Struggle", New York and London, New York University Press, 2001.

In this book, Bettye Thomas and V.P. Franklin write about the role of African American women in the Mississippi in the Freedom Democratic Party. Black women, such as, Fannie Lou Hamer, Annie Devinen, and Victoria Gray participated in the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party as delegates, elected officials, and organizers. The authors write that, African American women in the MFDP publically protested segregation. The authors write that, Fannie Lou Hamer shifted attention to the racist structures of government, by describing the conditions of poor and disenfranchised African Americans in the South. As a result, African American women challenged segregation laws, and helped to generate White democrat’s support for African American’s civil rights.

Newman, Mark, "The Civil Rights Movement", Edinburgh, Scottland, Edinburgh University Press, 2004.

In this book, Mark Newman writes about the role of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, or SNCC and the Congress of Racial Equality, or CORE in the Freedom Project in Mississippi. SNCC and CORE organized the “Freedom Election” to educate African Americans about the importance of voting rights and the voting process. They also registered African Americans to vote in the South. CORE created the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party in 1964, which included both black and white Americans. MFDP also elected African American women as delegates, or political leaders of the organization. The MFDP challenged segregation polices in the Democratic Party of congress, by speaking out against racial violence and discrimination towards African Americans. Newman writes that, African Americans who were members of SNCC, MFDP, and CORE questioned the American the government’s authority to establish racial equality within the law.

Campbell, Clarice, "Civil Rights Chronicle:Letter from the South", Jackson Mississippi, University Press of Mississippi,1997.

In this book, Clarice Campbell writes about her life experiences, as a white college student at the University of Mississippi. While she was a student, Campbell challenged the segregation laws in Mississippi eating in a segregated dinner with her an African American person. Campbell also learned about the struggle for African American to achieve integration laws, better educational opportunities, and economic equality. Campbell writes that, the United States government built state schools that were integrated and provided resources, federal funding, and teachers for black and white students. This book is a primary source.

 McAdam, Doug, Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1990

In this book, McAdam writes on the role of White Americans in the civil rights movement. White liberal democrats helped provide financial aid, during the spring of 1963, which helped SNCC and CORE start the Freedom Project in the summer of 1964. White Americans also worked as teachers in Freedom Schools, and helped register African Americans to vote in Mississippi. However, some members of SNCC and CORE argued that, White Americans that volunteered for SNCC and CORE assumed too many leadership roles, which caused the number of African American leaders, secretaries, and organizers to diminish. This created conflict among black and white members of SNCC and CORE. Moreover, the presence of White Americans in SNCC and CORE increased racial violence by white supremacist in Mississippi.

McGuire, Danielle, "At the Dark End of the Street", New York, Random House LLC, 2011

In this book, McGuire writes about the role of sexual violence in the freedom movement in Mississippi. In the chapter called “Sex and Civil Rights”, McGuire writes that, the Ku Klux Klan used sexual violence as a strategy to undermine interracial marriages and the civil rights movement. McGuire writes that, Sexual violence to African American women prompted the federal government to investigate sexual violence crimes in the South. Sexual violence also brought media coverage to the south, and informed Americans on the consequences of sexual violence and racial discrimination. As a result, many white Americans expressed support African American women who were raped and victimized by white men. Furthermore, rape convictions helped support African American women, and to dismantle white supremacy in the court system. This allowed African American women to gain social power within the legal system in the South. 

Culley, Margo. "Silver Rights: A True Story from the Front Lines of the Civil Rights Struggle", The Women's Review of Books  no. Jan. 919960: 1+. Accessed Date 10 Apr. 2014.

In this article, Culley reviews the impact of integration laws in Mississippi. The writer claims that, the aim of the civil rights act of 1964 was to desegregate white public schools in Mississippi.  However, Culley writes that, white teachers and administrators often practiced discrimination against black students. Also African American children were harassed by white children in the public schools. In response to integration, southern white men intimidated and brutalized African Americans for sending their children to white public schools. Integration was an important element of the freedom summer, because many African Americans took a risk by allowing their children to attend white public schools.  

Crespino, Joseph, "Freedom Is a Constant Struggle: An Anthology of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement", The Mississippi Quarterly no. 53.3 (2000): 484. Acessed 10 Apr. 2014.

In this article, Crespino reviews the book “An anthology of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement” by . Crespino states that, slave spirituals played an important role in the Freedom Summer. African Americans used songs as a form of protest and resistance to racial inequality in Mississippi. The author points out that, slave spirituals helped to unify African Americans and white liberal democrats who supported the civil rights movement. I think that, slave spirituals were important to the Freedom Summer, because music allowed African Americans to express their thoughts and beliefs about racism and civil rights. Slave spirituals were also important to the freedom summer, because they are rooted in slavery and African American’s history. Therefore, slave spirituals provided African Americans emotional support in order to stand up against white supremacy and racism.

Sturkey, William, "I want to become a part of history, Freedom Summer, Freedom schools, and the Freedom news", The Journal of African American History no. 95.3-4 (2010): 348+. Acessed 7 Apr. 2014.

In this article, the William Sturkey reviews the literature about the Freedom School in Mississippi, Alabama, in 1964. I think that, the information in this article is mostly accurate, because the author uses primary sources about the Freedom Schools. Sturkey writes that, The Freedom Schools were organized by members of the Council of Federated Organization, or COFO, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, or SNCC, and Black and White student teachers. The curriculum of the Freedom Schools was designed to engage African American students in nonviolence strategies, English and literary skills, and their political rights a citizens of Mississippi. Sturkey emphasizes the role of black students in the Freedom School. Black students in the Freedom Schools worked to achieve civil rights for African Americans, by publishing Freedom School Newspapers. Black student newspapers informed the African Americans about racial dialogue and nonviolent resistance to oppression. Black students in the Freedom School were important to the civil rights movement, because they helped educate the African American community in order to equal rights and socio-economic opportunities for African Americans.

 Moye, Todd, "The Music Has Gone Out of the Movement", Southern Cultures no. 18.3 (2012): 120+. Accessed Date 10 Apr. 2014.|A312509030&&docId=GALE|A312509030&docType=GALE&role=LitRC

 In this article, Moye analyzes the effects of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.  Moye writes that, the Voting Rights Act was passed after Freedom Summer in 1964. The Voting Rights Act was designed by president Lyndon B. Johnson to provide African Americans the right to vote. Moye writes that, the effects of the Voting Rights Act were delayed, because many Republicans and Democrats in congress opposed the Voting Rights Act. As a result,. As a result, violence and riots erupted in the black community, after the Voting Rights Act was passed. I think that, the Voting Rights Act was a response to the Freedom Project in Mississippi. During the summer of 1964, the Student Non-violent Coordinatiing Committe, or SNCC and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, or MFDP worked to register African Americans to vote and to end racial segregation. In general, the SNCC and MFDP efforts to register Africans Americans to vote were prevented my segregation policies in the South. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 helped to eradicate racial inequality and segregation withinthe law. However,  racial inequality and discrimination persisted after the Voting Rights Act was passed. I think that, Moye's argument that, riots in African American communities were a direct result of the delayed gratification of the Voting Rights Act is valid. Moreover, Riots marked a shift from nonviolent strategies employed in the Freedom Summer to more militant approach to social change. Black and White Americans discontent with the Voting Rights Act proved the struggle for social and economic equality would continue in the future. Moye uses a primary source to formulate his arguments. Todd Moye is a professor of oral history at University of Northern Texas.

 Walsh, Deirdre, Malveaux, Suzanne,McCaughan, Tim "Many Doubt 1964 Civil Rights Act Could Pass Today",, Access Date Wed April 9, 2014.

In this web article, McLaughlin reviews president Lyndon B. Johnson’s role in the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The author writes that, Johnson’s greatest achievement was the Civil Rights Act, which outlawed racial discrimination in America. The author proposes that, American politicians would not vote for the Civil Rights Act today. The author writes that, even though Johnson and the members of the Republican Party disagreed with each other on the Civil Rights Act, Johnson helped pass the Civil Rights Act by negotiating between the Democratic and Republican Party. The author states that, Republicans and Democrats of today are not concerned with reaching a compromise on civil rights. Instead, the author suggests that, Republicans and Democrats often engage in pointless debates which results in insufficient social changes in the law. The author states that, social activism and grass roots organizations are important in order to broader people’s perspective on civil rights. I think that, the author’s claim that, today politicians would not pass the Civil Rights Act is partly accurate. For example, many politicians reject the Gay Marriage rights because they have different beliefs and ideas about heterosexual marriage. As a result, many citizens who are a part of the LGBT community have spoken out against sexual discrimination and anti-gay marriage laws. Social activism was an important strategy in the civil rights movement, which enabled black Americans to work together and to facilitate social change.